屠岸贾是靠打败好战的游牧民族 ...

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屠岸贾——王学圻饰
2010年11月3日
 

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                                   屠岸贾——王学圻饰

  

  屠岸贾是靠打败好战的游牧民族赤狄起家的晋国将军,更是令人胆寒的政坛强人。在晋王都只能在以赵盾为族长的赵氏家族阴影下发抖的时候,他却紧密地站在晋王身边,由此获得至关重要的政治资源。屠岸贾的得意之作是诬陷赵氏家族谋反,一日之内,屠灭了赵氏一族300多人。跟所有善于阴谋诡计的大人物一样,屠岸贾疑心极重,但讽刺的是,他放过了刚刚出生了赵氏孤儿,收跟他草泽医生程婴为门客,全然不知程婴跟自己有深仇大恨。他还认了赵氏孤儿为义子,把他养大向自己复仇。

 
 
 
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趙氏孤兒
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本文介紹的是紀君祥的元曲作品。關於同名影視作品,詳見「趙氏孤兒 (消歧義)」。

趙氏孤兒》,元朝雜劇,作者為紀君祥。本劇全名或作《趙氏孤兒大報仇》(見於明人臧懋循所編《元曲選》),或作《冤報冤趙氏孤兒》(見於《元刊雜劇三十種》)。

目錄

 [隐藏

[编辑] 劇情簡介

元雜劇《趙氏孤兒》是一部歷史劇,相關的歷史事件記載最早見於《左傳》,情節較略;到司馬遷《史記·趙世家》,劉向《新序》、《說苑》才有詳細記載。戲劇情節敘春秋時期晉貴族趙氏被奸臣屠岸賈陷害而慘遭滅門,倖存下來的趙氏孤兒趙武長大後為家族復仇的故事。

此劇是一部悲劇,內容取材自春秋時代的晉國的歷史事件「下宮之難」,但並非按照歷史事實撰寫,對歷史上的人物關係作了很大的改變。

本劇的《元曲選》本與與元刊本曲文有較大差異,情節也有一些不同。

《元曲選》本的題目正名:

公孫杵臼恥勘問
趙氏孤兒大報讐

《元刊雜劇三十種》本的題目正名:

韓厥救捨命烈士
程嬰說妒賢送子
義逢義公孫杵臼
冤報冤趙氏孤兒

本戲忠臣、義士、節婦、孝子,無不凜然如生;忠憤之氣,貫徹全篇。

[编辑] 楔子

晉國大夫趙盾被奸人屠岸賈陷害,誣告謀反,遂被夷滅宗族。趙盾之子趙朔晉霛公駙馬,被屠岸賈假傳君命逼其自盡。趙朔自盡前囑咐公主,若生下兒子,則名為趙氏孤兒,使其長大後為全家報仇。

[编辑] 第一折

公主將趙氏孤兒託付給程嬰,自縊而死。屠岸賈派下將軍韓厥把守駙馬府門,以防有人帶出趙氏孤兒。程嬰將孤兒藏在藥箱中帶出,被韓厥搜出。但韓厥不忍損人利己,於是自刎而死。

[编辑] 第二折

屠岸賈發覺趙氏孤兒被救出,下令若不獻出趙氏孤兒,則殺盡國中半嵗以內的小兒。程嬰與公孫杵臼商議,欲以自己兒子冒充,以拯救趙氏孤兒。最終決定由程嬰出首,而公孫杵臼將程嬰之子冒充為趙氏孤兒。

[编辑] 第三折

程嬰向屠岸賈告發公孫杵臼藏匿趙氏孤兒。屠岸賈嚴刑審問公孫杵臼,並命令程嬰拷問公孫杵臼。屠岸賈手下士兵在公孫杵臼家中搜出假趙氏孤兒,並將其殺死,公孫杵臼也撞階自盡。趙氏孤兒被程嬰冒充為自己的兒子,起名程勃,並被屠岸賈收為義子,故又名屠成。

[编辑] 第四折

改名換姓的孤兒長成以後,程嬰告知其身世,趙氏孤兒悲憤交加,決意報仇。

[编辑] 第五折

(元刊本雜劇無此折,疑為臧懋循所增添[1]
趙氏孤兒向晉悼公申訴己族之慘禍。由上卿魏絳傳令,將屠岸賈滅族,趙氏孤兒恢復趙姓,改名趙武。

[编辑] 翻譯及改編版本

翻譯標記
當前條目的內容正在依照en:the orphan of zhao的內容進行翻譯(2012年4月18日)
如果您熟知條目內容並擅長翻譯,歡迎協助改善或校對這篇條目。長期閒置的非中文內容可能會被移除。

本劇後來傳到法國,伏爾泰將其改編為五幕劇本《L'orphelin de la Maison de Tchao》(1735年出版),是中國最早傳至歐洲的戲曲作品。

显示▼隐藏▲一些非中文的文字因為尚未翻譯而被隱藏,歡迎參與翻譯。

The Orphan of Zhao was the first Chinese play to have been translated into any European language.[2] The Jesuit father Joseph Henri Marie de Prémare translated the play, which he titled L'Orphelin de la Maison de Tchao, into French in 1731.[3] In Premaré's work, the dialogue was translated, but not the songs.[4] Premaré sent the translation to France, so it could be delivered to Étienne Fourmont, a member of the French Academy.[5][6] However, the play came in the possession of Jean Baptiste Du Halde instead, who published it in his Description de la Chine in 1735, although he had no permission from Prémare or Fourmont to do so.[5]Whatever the circumstances, Du Halde published the first European translation of a genuine Chinese play.[5] Prémare's translation would soon be translated into English for two distinct English editions of Du Halde's book, which appeared in 1736 and 1741 respectively.[5] The first one was translated was by Richard Brookes in 1736, and the second one was translated by Green and Guthrie in 1738–41.[7] In 1962, a third English translation of Prémare's work was done by Thomas Percy,[8] which was a revision of Green and Guthrie.[7] However, many of Prémare's mistranslations remained, as did the omission of the songs.[9] In his book, DuHalde (1739) remarked: "There are Plays the Songs of which are difficult to be understood, because they are full of Allusions to things unknown to us, and Figures of Speech very difficult for us to observe."[10] Nevertheless, The Orphan of Zhao was well-received throughout Europe with the vogue of chinoiserie at its height.[9] Between 1741 and 1759, the play was adapted into French, English, and Italian.[9]

In 1741, William Hatchett wrote and published the earliest adaptation of the play, which was in English; it was titled The Chinese Orphan: An Historical Tragedy.[7] However, in essence, it was written as a political attack to Sir Robert Walpole,[7] who was likened to Tu Angu, renamed as Saiko in Hattchett's play.[11] Thus, Hatchett's work was never produced and—in the words of John Genest—"totally unfit for representation."[7] In his work, Hatchett made a dedication to the Duke of Argyle in the context of the play, where the characters could be recognized as the people whom he satirized:[12]

"As the Chinese are a wise discerning People, and much fam'd for their Art in Government, it is not to be wonder'd at, that the Fable is political: Indeed, it exhibits an amazing Series of Male-administration, which the Chinese Author has wrought up to the highest Pitch of Abhorrence, as if he had been acquainted with the Inflexibility of your Grace's Character in that respect. It's certain, he has exaggerated Nature, and introduced rather a Monster than a Man; but perhaps it is a Maxim with the Chinese Poets to represent Prime Ministers as so many Devils, to deter honest People from being deluded by them."[13]

In Vienna, the Italian playwright Pietro Metastasio had received a request from Empress Maria Theresa to write a drama for a court performance.[14]Thus, in 1752, he produced L'Eroe cinese.[15] For the play, he had taken inspiration of The Orphan of Zhao and specifically mentions the story in Du Halde's book.[16] However, as Metastasio was restricted by the number of actors (namely five) and duration, his play had a rather simple plot.[15]

In 1753, Voltaire wrote his L'Orphelin de la Chine.[15] About his adapted play, Voltaire's thesis was that of a story exemplifying morality, that is as he explained, thatgenius and reason has a natural superiority over blind force and barbarism.[17][18][19] Voltaire praised the Confucian morality of The Orphan of Zhao,[18][19] remarking that it was a "valuable monument of antiquity, and gives us more insight into the manners of China than all the histories which ever were, or ever will be written of that vast empire".[20] However, the play was still considered barbarous by him as it violated the conventions of the unities of time, action, and place, likening it to some of Shakespeare and Lope de Vega's monstrous farces as "nothing but a heap of incredible stories".[18][19] Although the story of the orphan is retained in Voltaire's play, he is placed in the setting of invading Tartars.[19] The orphan, as the royal heir, is entrusted to the official Zamti by the Chinese monarch, who was later killed by the Tatars of Gengis Kan.[19]Voltaire introduces the theme of love (which is absent in the original play), where Gengis Kan has a secret passion for Idamé, the wife of Zamti, but he is rejected by her as she stands firm to the lawful conduct of her nation.[21] Voltaire had altered the story to fit his idea of European enlightment and Chinese civilization,[18] whereas, the original play is considered a stark and relentless story of intrigue, murder, and revenge.[21] In the end of L'Orphelin de la Chine, the conqueror was to be conquered and reconciles as an admirer of Chinese civilization in light of the virtue and wisdom of Zamti and Idamé.[18] On August 1755 at the Comédie Français in Paris, L'Orphelin de la Chine was for the first time performed on stage.[21] The play became highly acclaimed with many people—like Jean-Jacques Rousseau—who viewed with approval the staging of a play which exalted the virtues of an ancient civilization.[22]

In 1756, the Irish playwright Arthur Murphy wrote his Orphan of China.[23] He stated that he had been attracted by Premare's play, but his play even more resembles Voltaire's L'Orphelin de la Chine.[23] Murphy's Orphan of China was first performed in April 1759 and became highly successful in England.[24] In his 1759 edition, Murphy criticized Voltaire for adding a theme of love—which he thought was unsuitable in this play—and for having a "scantiness of interesting business".[24] He also reasserted the story of revenge, which was omitted in Voltaire's play.[25] Although different, Murphy's play approached the original Chinese play closer than any other European adaption of the time.[25] The Orphan of China was well-received in the literary circles of London.[25] In 1767, Murphy's play was brought to the United States, where it was first performed at the Southwark Theater in Philadelphia.[25]

In 1834, Stanislas Julien made the first complete translation of The Orphan of Zhao, which was from the Chinese original into French, including both the dialogue and the songs.[26][27]

The 2010 film Sacrifice directed by Chen Kaige is based on the historical Chinese play.[28]

王國維認爲《趙氏孤兒》一劇“即列之于世界大悲剧中,亦无愧色也。”[來源請求]

[编辑] 參見

[编辑] 參考文獻

  1. ^ 葉慶炳《中國文學史》下,頁247引鄭騫言:「元刊雜劇三十種本則僅四折,至趙孤立志報仇為止,未實敘其事。然自十二月帶堯民歌以下數曲,將報仇情形用想像語寫出,劇情已完。此正手法高妙處。今第五折用實寫,轉蛇成足。文筆既不相纇,結構上亦嫌多餘。其為後人所添無疑。」
  2. ^ Liu(1953年),193..
  3. ^ Liu(1953年),201..
  4. ^ Sieber(2003年),9..
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Liu(1953年),202..
  6. ^ Hawkes(1985年),108..
  7. ^ 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 Fan(1949年),148..
  8. ^ Liu(1953年),202–203..
  9. ^ 9.0 9.1 9.2 Liu(1953年),203..
  10. ^ Halde(1739年),196..
  11. ^ Liu(1953年),204..
  12. ^ Fan(1949年),149–150..
  13. ^ Fan(1949年),149..
  14. ^ Liu(1953年),205..
  15. ^ 15.0 15.1 15.2 Liu(1953年),206..
  16. ^ Liu(1953年),205–206..
  17. ^ Shi(2009年),177..
  18. ^ 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 Tian(2008年),20..
  19. ^ 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 Liu(1953年),207..
  20. ^ Tian(2008年),21..
  21. ^ 21.0 21.1 21.2 Liu(1953年),208..
  22. ^ Liu(1953年),208–209..
  23. ^ 23.0 23.1 Liu(1953年),209..
  24. ^ 24.0 24.1 Liu(1953年),210..
  25. ^ 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 Liu(1953年),211..
  26. ^ Liu(1953年),212..
  27. ^ Sieber(2003年),13–14..
  28. ^ Lee(2011年)[1]..
  • 臧懋循編《元曲選》
  • 《元刊雜劇三十種》
  • 葉慶炳《中國文學史》(台北:學生書局,1987)
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